ما هي اسباب الضغط المنخفض واعراضه

تعرف على انخفاض ضغط الدم وأسبابه

يعتقد الكثيرون بأن ارتفاع ضغط الدم فقط يمثل خطرا على الصحة لكن انخفاضه لايقل عنه خطورة.

يعتبر الدوار والإعياء من المؤشرات التي تدل على إنخفاض ضغط الدم الى جانب مؤشرات أخرى.قد يكون ضغط الدم المنخفض طبيعيا لدى البعض، لكن له آثار جانبية على الآخرين، وفي الحالتين يشكل خطورة.
يتكون ضغط الدم الطبيعي من قرائتين: انقباضي (الرقم العلوي) ويقيس ضغط الدم في الشرايين في أثناء دقات القلب.
وانبساطي (الرقم السفلي)، ويقيس ضغط الدم في الشرايين عندما يستقر القلب بين النبضات.
وتكون قراءة ضغط الدم الطبيعي عبارة عن قراءة انقباضية تقل عن 120، وانبساطية أقل من 80. على سبيل المثال، سيكون ضغط الدم الذي يعتبر طبيعيا بالنسبة لشخص بالغ سليم 110/70.

أعراض انخفاض ضغط الدم

يصاحب إنخفاض ضغط الدم بعدد من الأعراض التي تؤثر على المصاب بشكل سريع لتبدأ بالظهور ومنها، الدوار أوالدوخة، الغثيان، الإغماء، الجفاف والعطش، قلة التركيز.
مشاكل في الرؤية تتمثل في عدم وضوح الرؤية بالإضافة لبرودة في الجسم وشحوب للبشرة، بحسب ما نشر موقع جمعية القلب الأمريكية.

أسباب انخفاض ضغط الدم

-انخفاض ضغط الدم الانتصابي، وهو شكل من انخفاض ضغط الدم الذي يحدث عندما تقف من وضعية الجلوس أو الاستلقاء، الأمر الذي يؤدي للشعر بالدوخة وقد يصل لحد الإغماء.

-انخفاض ضغط الدم بعد الأكل، وهذه الحالة تجعل الناس يشعرون بالدوار أو الدوخة بعد تناول وجبة، لأن ضغط الدم ينخفض فجأة.

-انخفاض ضغط الدم بوساطة عصبية، يتسبب هذا الاضطراب في انخفاض ضغط الدم بعد الوقوف فترات طويلة، وينتشر بشكل أكبر لدى الشباب.

-انخفاض حجم الدم، إما بسبب فقدان كميات كبيرة من الدم، وإما بسبب النزيف الداخلي الحاد، أو الجفاف.

-خلال الأسابيع الـ24 الأولى من الحمل.

-مشاكل في القلب، ومن ضمن أمراض القلب التي تسبب انخفاض ضغط الدم انخفاض معدل ضربات القلب بشكل غير طبيعي.

-مشاكل الغدد الصماء، تشمل هذه المشاكل الغدد المنتجة للهرمونات في أنظمة الغدد الصماء بالجسم، وبخاصة قصور الغدة الدرقية، وقصور الغدة الكظرية، وانخفاض نسبة السكر في الدم.

-نقص التغذية، مثل نقص الفيتامينات الأساسية B12 وحمض الفوليك وفقر الدم، والذي بدوره يمكن أن يؤدي إلى انخفاض ضغط الدم.

– رد الفعل التحسسي، وقد يكون مميتاً في بعض الحالات، كالحساسية للأدوية مثل البنسلين، وبعض الأطعمة مثل الفول السوداني، أو لسعات النحل.

كيف يمكن التخفيف من أعراض انخفاض ضغط الدم

يتم التخفيف من أعراض انخفاض ضغط الدم من خلال، اتباع نظام غذائي صحي يحتوي على القليل من الكربوهيدرات، وشرب المزيد من الماء والابتعاد عن الكحول.
النهوض ببطئ بعد الجلوس او الاستلقاء، وارتداء جوارب ضاغطة عند الجلوس لفترات طويلة.

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